EU and NATO member Lithuania declared a state of emergency since the Baltic nation borders Russia’s Kaliningrad region to the south-west and Russia’s ally Belarus to the east.
NATO nations have 100 jets and 120 ships on high alert as deterrence.
“Make no mistake: we will defend every ally against any attack on every inch of NATO territory,” said NATO chief Jens Stoltenberg.
European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen called it a “barbaric attack” on an independent nation that also targeted “the stability in Europe and the whole of the international peace order.” The EU will hold an emergency summit in Brussels.
UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson said the invasion “hideous and barbaric”, while pledging “a massive package of economic sanctions to be agreed today” that would “hobble” the Russian economy.
“Our mission is clear, diplomatically, politically, economically, and eventually, militarily, this hideous, barbaric venture of Vladimir Putin must end in failure,” he said.
But no one promised to move in militarily and defend Ukraine as it could touch off a major European war.
So instead, most of the world — including Australia but notably but not China — condemned and threatened to hit the Russian elites with, in the words of Ms von der Leyen, “massive and targeted sanctions.”
She will put to EU leaders late Thursday a proposal that “will target strategic sectors of the Russian economy by blocking the access to technologies and markets that are key for Russia.”
She said the sanctions, if approved, “will weaken Russia’s economic base and its capacity to modernise.”
“In addition, we will freeze Russian assets in the European Union and stop the access of Russian banks to European financial markets,” She said.
Like the first package of sanctions that were imposed when Russia recognised the two breakaway eastern Ukrainian republics, Ms von der Leyen said all Western powers were walking in lockstep.
“We are closely aligned with our partners and allies the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, but also, for example, Japan and Australia,” she said.
Highlighting a widening rift in superpower relations, China stood alone in failing to condemn the attack and instead accused the United States and its allies of worsening the crisis.
And it put its friendship in practice Thursday by approving imports of wheat from Russia, a move that could help to reduce the impact of possible increased Western sanctions.
Russia is one of the biggest wheat producers but would be vulnerable if foreign markets block shipments.
In a clear defence of Moscow, China “called on parties to respect others’ legitimate security concerns.”
Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying said “all parties should work for peace instead of escalating the tension or hyping up the possibility of war”, in language China has consistently used to criticise the West in the crisis.
“Those parties who were busy condemning others, what have they done? Have they persuaded others?” Ms Hua said.
One thing was clear — weeks of diplomatic cajoling, global crisscrossing of leaders and foreign ministers, and the threat of sanctions against Putin’s inner circle had failed to dissuade the Kremlin from taking one of the most significant measures in Europe since the end of the Cold War.
Overall, more sanctions appear the only option for the foreseeable future. And from South Korea to Australia to Europe, governments were lining up to oppose Putin.
French President Emmanuel Macron, who had laboured until the last minute for a diplomatic solution, said “France firmly condemns Russia’s decision to wage war,” and promised support for Ukraine.
The turmoil from the beginning of a long-feared act of aggression rippled from Europe to Asia.
Russia’s attack and uncertainty about the intensity of the Western response sent stocks tumbling and oil prices surging by more than US$5 ($7.98) per barrel.
Market benchmarks in Europe and Asia fell by as much as 4 per cent, while Brent crude oil briefly jumped above US$100 ($139.70) per barrel in London for the first time since 2014 on unease about possible disruption of supplies from Russia, the No. 3 producer.
In New York, the UN Security Council held an extraordinary emergency meeting meant to dissuade Russia from sending troops into Ukraine.
Secretary-General Antonio Guterres’ plea to “give peace a chance” came just as Russian President Vladimir Putin appeared on Russian TV to announce the military operation.
Explosions were heard in Kyiv and other cities in Ukraine. Moscow had massed more than 150,000 troops on Ukraine’s borders. On Monday, Mr Putin recognised the independence of two separatist regions in eastern Ukraine and ordered Russian forces there for what he called “peacekeeping”.
To avoid international civilian casualties, the European Union Aviation Safety Agency said “there is a risk of both intentional targeting and misidentification of civil aircraft” and that “the presence and possible use of a wide range of ground and airborne warfare systems poses a HIGH risk for civil flights operating at all altitudes.”
The attack touched all sectors of society across the globe. The director of the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention openly worried that global attention will now shift even further from helping the world’s least vaccinated continent respond to COVID-19.
“The conflict in Ukraine definitely will draw attention, political attention, towards that crisis,” John Nkengasong said.